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Hebrew Glossary - C

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C

Note: The transliteration scheme used on the Hebrew for Christians web site uses the letter K for words that begin with Kaf.


Calendar



(loo-akh shah-nah) n. Calendar (of the year). Jewish Calendar. The months of the Hebrew calendar are as follows:

  1. נִיסָן (Nisan) -  30 days; month of Pesach (Nisan 14) [March-April]
  2. אִיָּר (Iyar) - 29 days; Pesach Sheni; Lag B'Omer [April-May]
  3. סִיוָן (Sivan) - 30 days; month of Shavuot [May-June]
  4. תַּמּוּז (Tammuz) - 29 days; fast of 17th day of Tammuz [June-July]
  5. אָב (Av) - 30 days; Tishah B'Av; Tu B'Av [July-August]
  6. אֱלוּל (Elul) - 29 days; month of preparation for High Holidays [August-September]
  7. תִּשׁרִי (Tishri) - 30 days; High Holidays (Rosh Hashanah - Yom Kippur); Sukkot/Shmini Atzeret/Simchat Torah [September-October]
  8. מַרְחֶשְׁוָן (Cheshvan) - 29/30 days; [October-November]
  9. כִּסְלֵו (Kislev) - 29/30 days; Chanukah; [November-December]
  10. טֵבֵת (Tevet) - 29 days; 10th of Tevet; [December-January]
  11. שְׁבָט (Shevat) - 30 days; Tu B'Shevat; [January-February]
  12. אֲדָר א׳ (Adar I) - 30 days (אדר ב׳ on leap years); [February-March]







Camp of the Israelites



(ma-kha-NAY yees-rah-AYL) n. The arrangement of the camp of the Israelites as they were traveling in the wilderness with the mishkan (Tabernacle). Notice how the order of the camp of the Israelites resembled a cross, with the Kohanim next to the tribe of Judah, from whom would come Yeshua, our Kohen Gadol of the new covenant:






Capernaum



(ke-far-na-KHOOM) n. Capernaum. In the Berit Chadashah, the city where Yeshua did much of His ministry. "Village of Nachum."




Caring for the Body



(she-mee-raht ha-GOOF) n. The mitzvah regarding taking care of (watching) one's body (health). This involves a number of different principles, including dietary law, personal hygeine, abstaining from drunkenness and fornication, and so on.




Case Law



(tak-kah-NAH) n. (pl. takkanot)  "Case law ordinace"; a law instituted by rabbis that does not directly derive from the Torah (but is inferred from its interpretation). An example would be the lighting of candles on erev Shabbat. The ritual of public Torah recitation every Monday and Thursday is a takkanah instituted by Ezra the Scribe. Takkanot (pl.) can vary by region, based on the prevailing rabbinical authority. Ashkenazic Jews accept takkanot that Sephardic Jews might not recognize as binding. An aspect of Jewish halakhah.




Clothing the Naked



(hal-bah-shat a-roo-MEEM) n. Clothing the naked. Clothing those in need.





Coat of many colors



(ke-TOH-net ha-pas-SEEM) n. The special "coat of many colors" (ornamental tunic) by which Jacob singled out Joseph as a favored son. Jacob and Joseph shared a lot in common: both had infertile mothers who had difficulty in childbirth; both mothers bore two sons; and both were hated by their brothers. In addition, the Torah states that Jacob loved Joseph more than all his other sons, since he was the son of his old age, and was the firstborn son (bechor) of his beloved wife Rachel. Jacob made him an ornamented tunic to indicate his special status in the family.  Note that the definite article is often omitted when discussing this special tunic, i.e., ketonet passim.




Cohen




(KO-hayn) n. Kohen. Cohen. Priest. The priest and his descendants, traditionally considered to be directly descended from Aaron, but first used in the Tanakh in reference to Melchi-Tsedek (Gen. 14:18).




Common Sense



(seekh-LOOT ha-LAYV) n. Showing sechel or common-sense.  Paying heed, behaving wisely, using good judgment and intelligence. One of the classic middot.




Completeness



(shlay-MUT) n. Wholeness; Completeness; Healing. Sometimes spelled shleimut, shleimus, etc.




Congratulations!



(yah-sher KOH-akh) phr. "May your strength be firm," said when congratulating someone who has had the merit of performing a mitzvah or other worthy task. "May You Have Strength!" It (loosely) means, "good job!" or "Kudos!" and is sometimes abbreviated as "Shkoach." Sometimes the phrase is spelled Yishar Koach.




Consolation



(tan-khoo-MEEM) n. Consolation (which comes from nichum, Isa 57:18 - nichumin - comforts).




Corners (of a field)




(PAY-ah) n. The commandment to leave grain at the edge of a field so that it can be harvested by the poor (Lev. 19:9). Every farmer was required to put aside a corner of his field (pe'at sadekha) for poor people to glean from the harvest. This mitzvah is called peia (PAY-yah, "edge"). Generally a farmer would leave 1/50th of his crops as peia for the poor. Other commandments for farmers include leket - leaving stalks for the poor and shikchah - leaving harvested bundles for the poor that were accidentally left behind during the harvest.




Cornerstone




(rohsh peen-NAH) n. Cornerstone; chief cornerstone; a reference to Mashiach Yeshua (Psalm 188:22); also the name of a small Jewish settlement in Northern Israel.




Courage



(OH-metz layv) n. Courage; boldness.




Covenant Between the Pieces




(be-REET bayn ha-b'ta-REEM) n. "Covenant between the pieces" (Gen. 15:9-21). The unconditional covenant given by God to Abraham and his descendants to inherit the land of Israel (i.e., the Promised Land). A smoking furnace and a flaming torch עבר (over, crossed) between the parts before God כרת (cut) the covenant with Abraham. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כָּרַת יְהוָה אֶת־אַבְרָם בְּרִית / "On that day the LORD made a covenant with Abram, saying, "To your offspring I assign this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the river Euphrates" (Gen. 15:18).




Covenant of Salt




(be-REET mel-AKH) n. Covenant of Salt (Num. 18:19).  Metaphor of the preservative power of salt, an everlasting covenant, i.e., reliable. Salt is a symbol of eternity because of its preservative properties, opposed to chametz (leavening). Salt does not ferment and preserves food against rot.  Specifically, brit melach refers to the provision for the Kehuna (priesthood) of the Torah and their provision through ma'aser from the people.




Cross- Crucifixion




(TSE-lahv) n. Cross; execution "stake." The Hebrew verb for "crucify" is tzalav (צָלַב) which is nearly identical to the word for "cross" (צְלָב). The Greek word for "cross" is stauros. "The cross of Messiah" (ὁ σταυρὸς τοῦ Χριστοῦ) is rendered as tzelav ha-Mashiach (צְלַב הַמָּשִׁיח) in some Hebrew translations. Crucifixion is called tzelivah (צְלִיבָה).

Most scholars say that Greek word stauros (σταυρός) referred to a common form of execution "perfected" by the ancient Romans that was described by Josephus as he wrote of how the Roman general Titus crucified the Jewish rebels... Apaprently there were different "shapes" of the cross, from crux simplex (|), crux immissa (+), crux commissa (T), or even stakes shaped as an X or Y. The "T" shape of the stake (crux commissa) was common, and is likely the form of the stake used in the case of Yeshua's crucifixion, since the early "patristics" referred to it that way. The fact that a soldier put a sponge on a hyssop plant to give Yeshua a drink suggests that he was crucified on "short cross," since the hyssop stalk was usually less than two feet long.... There are also early Greek (pre-Christian era) descriptions of the horrors of crucifixion. For example Herodotus (450 BCE) wrote: "they crucified him hands and feet stretched out and nailed to cross-pieces," which suggests the traditional representation...

At any rate, death by crucifixion was horrifyingly shameful and unutterably painful.... but Yeshua went there for you.





Cabala
"Tradition" The esoteric body of mystic literature centred around the Zohar, especially important in Hasidic thought and practice. Abracadabra. Hocus-pocus: be careful if you begin dabbling in this occultic literature.

Cantor
A leader of synagogue services trained in Jewish liturgical music.

C.E.
Common Era. Jewish alternative to A.D., which means Anno Domini, Latin for "in the year of our Lord."

Cohen
Priest. pl. cohenim (kohen).

Cohen HaGadol
The High Priest (Kohen HaGadol).

Conservative
Religious movement, developed in the United States during the 20th century as a more traditional response to modernity than that offered by Reform.


Note: See also entries under K.


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